Топ-100 Azerbaijan: from the past to the present

Azerbaijan: from the past to the present


 from the past to the present
Azerbaijan is a unitary republic located in the South Caucasus, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. The official language is Azerbaijani, which is part of the Turkic-speaking group.
In governance, the country is guided by democratic principles.
The vast majority of the population are Muslims. There are also a small number of Christians in this country.
92% of the country's population are Azerbaijani Turks, and 8% are representatives of other national minorities, including Lezghins, Talyshs, Russians, Ukrainians, Jews, Georgians, Armenians and so on.
The capital of the country is Baku.
Baku is also a port city. In addition to Baku, the country has such large cities as Ganja and Sumgait.
One of the oldest settlements in the world is located in Azerbaijan.
During excavations, a discovered human skull in the Azykh cave (Fizuli region, which is currently under the occupation of Armenia) indicates that human life existed here 600 thousand years ago.
The history of statehood of Azerbaijan begins in the first half of the III millennium BC. These states are mentioned in historical sources as the countries of Lullubi, Kuti and Turukki.
The centralized state of Manna, which existed in the ninth century BC, is considered the heiress of these states.
In the 7th century BC, the Cimmerian State was created.
Later, the state of Atropatena (now the northern lands of Iran) was created in the south of Azerbaijan, and the state of Albania (now the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan) reigned in the north.
At the beginning of our era, Zoroastrianism and Christianity were widespread along with Tengrism in Azerbaijan.
From the 7th to the 8th centuries, with the conquest of Azerbaijan by the Arabs, Islam began to spread here and eventually became the main faith.
Since the ninth century, power in the northern and southern parts of Azerbaijan has again returned to the Turks.
During this period, the northern and southern lands of Azerbaijan were united into a single Turkic state under the rule of the Sajjids.
In the XI-XV centuries, such Azerbaijani-Turkic states as Seljuks, Eldegiz, Shirvanshahs, Ilkhanates, Kara-Koyunlu and Ak-Koyunlu appeared on the political map of the world.
And in the 16th century, the entire territory of Azerbaijan was reunited around a single Safavid Turkic state.
From the middle of the 18th century to the end of this century, Azerbaijan was part of the Afshar-Turkic states, and from the 90s of the 18th century it was part of the Ghajar-Turkic states.
In the 19th century, feudal decay arose on the territory of Azerbaijan. A number of Turkic states was created under the name of the Khanate. One of them was the Irevan Khanate. The existence of this state with a large Muslim-Turkic population was terminated by Russian occupation in 1828, and an Armenian province was founded on these lands. This fact once again proves that the territory of modern Armenia is a historical Turkic land.
The South Caucasus has always been the focus of attention of super powers. This is due, on the one hand, to the fact that this territory is a corridor connecting Europe and Asia, and on the other hand, the presence of oil-rich deposits here has made the region attractive.
The first democratic republic of the east was created on May 28, 1918 in the northern lands of Azerbaijan. The modern Republic of Azerbaijan is the successor of this state.
Azerbaijan borders with Russia in the north, with Georgia in the northwest, with Armenia and Turkey in the west, and with Iran in the south.
Turkic-Islamic culture is the basis of Azerbaijani culture.
This culture has close ties with neighboring countries.
Once the culture of the ancient Romans, Sassanids and Arabs (during the caliphate) interacted with the Azerbaijani culture. Of course, Russian-Soviet culture should be added here. Naturally, such cultural wealth has made Azerbaijan one of a unique country that is very tolerant of other faiths and customs.
The geography of Azerbaijan consists of small and large mountains of the Caucasus, and between them is the Aran region. Climate diversity in such vertical zoning has led to agricultural wealth and diversification of the country.
The southern region of Azerbaijan is rich in citrus fruits, the northern region is rich in dried fruits, as well as other fruits and vegetables. And the low-lying regions are famous for growing pomegranates, vineyards and vegetables.
In the XVI-XVIII centuries, during the Safavids, the historical lands of Azerbaijan amounted to 400 thousand square kilometers.
In the twentieth century, during the time of the Democratic Republic, the country's territory was 114. 000 square kilometers.
However, with the intervention of Russia, from time to time, Azerbaijan lost 38 thousand square kilometers of its land. And thus, the Armenian state was artificially and purposefully created on the occupied Azerbaijani lands.
Later, the process of deportation and expulsion of the indigenous Muslim-Turkic population from the so-called Armenia, that is, from Western Azerbaijan, began. As a result of this ethnic cleansing, not a single Turk is left in Armenia today. But in the Republic of Azerbaijan more than 10 thousand Armenians still live.
When Azerbaijan declared its independence in 1991, its UN-recognized territory was 86. 000 square kilometers. However, as a result of the Armenian-Russian occupation, Azerbaijan is currently unable to control 20 percent of its territory.
Occupied territories include Nagorno-Karabakh and eight other surrounding areas.
In the occupied lands, Armenians intervene in all Christian Albanian churches, give them a new image and turn them into a Gregorian-Armenian church.
As for Muslim cultural monuments, they were completely destroyed.
By the way, Karabakh is also known for its traditions of carpet weaving. Unfortunately, the carpets of Karabakh and Azerbaijan as a whole are presented to the world by Armenians and their supporters as an example of Persian culture.
However, these ancient works of art of Azerbaijan are currently exhibited in famous museums and galleries around the world, such as the Victoria and Albert Museum (London), the Textile Museum (Washington), the Louvre (Paris), Topkapi (Istanbul), the Hermitage (St.Petersburg )
The fate of the Karabakh horses also suffered from Armenian fraud. Since then, Karabakh horses have been sold in foreign markets under the name Arabian horses.
Azerbaijan is the cradle of music. This is evidenced by images of people dancing on the rocks in Gobustan. According to the radiocarbon method, scientists have established that these paintings date back 12-14 thousand years ago.
On the other hand, these images show that residents of Gobustan are also employed in other areas of art. In other words, Azerbaijan is also the country with the most ancient culture in the world. That is why, even when the country is under occupation, the traditions of the aggressor easily change their appearance and their essence in Azerbaijani culture. Such an example can be seen in the example of mugham.
Mugam came to Azerbaijan with Arab conquests. However, under the influence of centuries and local culture, it has already become a genre of music belonging to Azerbaijan. Because, like the Azerbaijanis, not a single nation has such a beautiful throat in mugham. Currently, Azerbaijan is one of the few countries where this musical genre is in the lead. Therefore, as part of the musical heritage of Azerbaijan, mugam was included in the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage.
Azerbaijan has deep roots in musical traditions. The oldest musical instrument found in the country is the gavaldash in Gobustan.
This country is also known in the East as the cradle of classical music.
In 1908, Uzeyir Gadzhibeyli’s opera Leyli and Majnun became the first production.
In April 1912, Shovkat Mammadova went down in history as the first Muslim opera singer.
In 1940, the ballet "Maiden Tower" by Afrasiyab Badalbeyli was first performed in the Muslim East.
In the following decades, the works of Gara Garayev and Fikret Amirov left an indelible mark on the legacy of classical music.
Vagif Mustafazade, who created a unique synthesis of jazz and mugam in 1950-1970, made Azerbaijan one of the centers of jazz in the East. By the way, the legendary American blues singer BB King along with Vagif Mustafazadeh performed on the same stage. And he expressed his admiration for the piano performance of the founder of the Azerbaijani jazz school.
Azerbaijan is also known for its rich architecture. Each period in the history of the country left a certain mark. Monuments from the time of Caucasian Albania are still preserved.
The architectural schools of Tabriz, Nakhchivan, Shirvan and Absheron have many pearls.
The Maiden’s Tower (first millennium BC), the tombs of Yusif ibn Kusayr (1162) and Momina Khatun (1186), the castles of Mardakan (1232), and of Nardaran (1301), the Shirvanshahs palace, which is symbol of Baku (1420-1460), also the palace of the Sheki khans (18th century), these historical monuments can serve as one of such examples.
Azerbaijan also has rich cuisine. There are only a few varieties of pilaf and khingal. In addition, each region is famous for its unique cuisine.
For example, Sheki is famous for its piti, Baku - for its kutab, the southern regions - for lavangy, and the western regions - for various kebabs.
Sheki also resembles the European city of Gabrovo. There are many funny rumors about people.
When we talk about Ismayilli, on the one hand, we recall the art of blacksmithing, and on the other hand, women's shawls.
Kalagayi, the national headdress of Azerbaijani women, is mainly produced here.
In a word, Azerbaijan is a colorful country.

Abulfaz Aliyev was the first democratically elected president of modern Azerbaijan.
However, the process of state building and its strengthening is associated with the name of Heydar Aliyev. Therefore, he is recognized by the people as a national leader.
Currently, the country is headed by President Ilham Aliyev. He continues the tradition of a national leader with dignity.
Azerbaijan is flourishing day by day.
The first lady of the country is M. Aliyeva. She is also the first vice president.
The activities of Mehriban Aliyeva within UNESCO and ISESCO are highly appreciated by the international community.
Azerbaijan, as the largest independent state in the Caucasus, has chosen a unique development model and is successfully moving forward.
Elnur Shahin

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